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Rice is one of the ancient, widespread and highly productive cereal grains in the global agronomy and is considered to be one of the essential crops in our planet because it’s a main food for the most of Earth population.

It is cultivated in all continents in more than 100 countries on acreages that annually occupy 150 mln. hectares, and its production amounts up to half a billion tones. Rice has perhaps the highest yielding potential among cereal grains.

In 20th century among cereal grains which are widely used in human nutrition rice production has grown extremely quickly.

Rice is the second on the planet after wheat by the sowing acreages and gross harvests. In some years rice croppage dominated over wheat croppage owing to high yield.

Rice groat is rich in carbohydrates (up to 86%), but contains less protein (6 – 8%) and vitamins. Output of groat from rice grains is 60 - 65%. Starch, alcohol and beer are produced of nongrade rice. Wastes from processing of rice into groat are used as concentrated cattle fodder. Grain germs are valuable raw material for oil extraction.

Rice groat has low fiber and owing to its high nutritional and digest abilities is considered to be one of the best diet products. It has curative features. Rice grains are processed into flour, starch, powder, alcohol, etc. Best types of paper, board, sackcloth are made of rice straw. Straw can be used as a cattle fodder; it contains 24 fodder units. Rice oil is used for soap production.

Rice is characterized by relatively high energy value: 100g of rice contains 360 calories (330 in wheat, 348 in corn, and 332 in sorghum), up to 77,4% of free-nitrogen extracts that is more than in other cereal grains. Rice protein has relatively high content of essential amino acids, especially lysine, valine, methionine. This protein is more healthful than other herbs’ protein. Digestibility of rice starch and protein is 95,5%.

Rice grains are rich in starch; grits and flour are made of them, but mostly it is used as whole grains.

For Ukraine rice is a new groat crop, people started to cultivate it in the first part of 20th century. Unlike other cereal grains, rice is cultivated only on irrigated areas in southern regions of Ukraine (Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Kherson, Odessa and Mykolayiv regions).

Despite the fact that rice extends back over only few decades, domestic rice can successfully compete with the best world samples. By the qualitative indexes it is equal to foreign varieties, and it is better by taste and nutritional features that is confirmed by permanent demand of the country’s population.

Sowing acreage of rice in Ukraine is 29,5 thousand hectares. Annual average yield is 45 hundred kilograms per hectare. As of November 2010 rice gross harvest was 164,1 thousand tons.